Skjöldunga saga and Bjarkarímur edit The skjöldunga saga 36 37 and Bjarkarímur 36 tell a similar version to that of the Hrólfr Kraki's saga, but with several striking differences. Ingeld (Ingjaldus) of beowulf reappears, but it is Ingeld who is the father of Froda (Frodo and unlike in Hrólf Kraki's saga, ingeld takes Froda's place as the half-brother of healfdene (Haldan). The sources relate that Haldan has a half-brother named Ingjaldus and a queen Sigrith with whom he has three children: the sons roas and Helgo and the daughter Signy. Ingjaldus is jealous of his half-brother Haldan and so he attacks and kills him, and then marries Sigrith. Ingjaldus and Sigrith then have two sons named Rærecus and Frodo. Their half-sister Signy stays with her mother until she is married to sævil, the jarl of zealand.
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Hrókr cannot live with this, and so he returns with a large army and slays Hróarr. Helgi avenges his brother by also cutting off Hrókr's arms. Hróarr's son Agnar retrieves the ring by diving in the water, which gives him great glory. Agnar is said to have become greater than his father, and much talked of in the old sagas. Helgi attacks Sweden to retrieve yrsa, his daughter and lover, but is killed by Aðils, the king of Sweden. He is succeeded by Hrólfr Kraki, his son by Yrsa. Although it agrees with all the other Scandinavian sources in telling the story of Halga's incestuous relationship with his daughter Yrsa, it disagrees with all of them and with beowulf by removing Hrothgar altogether as the king of Denmark. Instead, his place is taken by his brother Halga, and Hrothgar is sent to northumberland, existentialism where he marries Ögn, the daughter of a positively fictive king Norðri who is named after Northumberland ( Norðimbraland ). Opinion is divided on whether there is any connection between Hrothgar's wife wealhþeow in beowulf and his wife Ögn in Hrólfr Kraki's saga ; it has been suggested that Ögn shows that wealhþeow and her family (the helmings) were Anglo-saxon. 36 Another difference is that Hrothgar's sons Hreðric and Hroðmund do not appear in the Scandinavian tradition, but correspond to Agnar, in Hrólfr Kraki's saga.
He then sets out to neutralize his nephews Hróarr and Helgi. However, the two brothers survive on an island, protected by a man called vivil; and after some adventure they avenge their father by killing Fróði. Hróarr is presented as "meek and blithe and he is completely removed from ruling the kingdom, leaving the rule to his brother Helgi. Instead he joins Norðri, the king of Northumberland, thesis where he marries Ögn, the king's daughter. As recompense for Hróarr's share of the danish kingdom, helgi gives him a golden ring. Sævil Jarl's son Hrókr (Hróarr and Helgi's nephew) becomes jealous that he has not inherited anything from his grandfather Halfdan; he goes to his uncle helgi to claim his inheritance. Helgi refuses to give him a third of Denmark, and so instead he goes to northumbria to claim the golden ring. He asks Hróarr if he at least could have a look at the ring, whereupon he takes the ring and throws it into the water. Hróarr naturally becomes angry, and cuts off Hrókr's feet and sends him back to his ships.
The Icelandic sources can be divided into two groups: the donation Hrólfr Kraki's saga on the one hand, and the skjöldunga saga and Bjarkarímur on the other. Both groups tell a version of Hrothgar and Halga's feud with Froda (Fróði) and Ingeld (Ingjaldr). However, whereas the Hrólfr Kraki's saga make froda the brother metamorphosis of healfdene, the skjöldunga saga and Bjarkarímur make ingeld the brother of healfdene. Hrólfr Kraki's saga also disagrees with all the other works by moving Hrothgar from the throne of Denmark to northumbria. Hrólfr Kraki's saga edit Hrólfr Kraki's saga relates that Halfdan has three children, Hróarr, helgi, and the daughter Signý, who is married to sævil Jarl. Halfdan has a brother named Fróði and both of them rule a kingdom, but Halfdan is good-natured and friendly, whereas Fróði is savage. Fróði attacks and kills Halfdan and makes himself the king of a united Denmark.
The names of Hrothgar and others appear in the form they had in Old Icelandic or Latinized Old Danish at the time the stories were put to paper, and not in their Old English or more "authentic" Proto-norse forms. 3 It has been a matter of some debate whether the hero beowulf could have the same origin as Hroðulf's berserker Bödvar Bjarki, who appears in Scandinavian sources. 36 Among these sources, it is the most famous one, the Hrólfr Kraki's saga, which is most different from beowulf, and a notable difference is that Hrothgar leaves the rule of Denmark to his younger brother Halga and moves to northumbria. The focus is consequently on the Hrólfr Kraki's saga when a scholar questions the comparison of Hrothgar and other characters from beowulf with counterparts in Scandinavian tradition. Scandinavian sources have added some information that appear in beowulf studies, without having any founding in the work itself, such as the information that Halga was, or probably was, Hroðulf's father. Another example is the existence of a woman named Yrsa, who, however, has been transposed to a role she never had in any source texts, that of Hrothgar's sister. Norse sagas and poems edit In Icelandic sources, Hrothgar, halga and Hroðulf appear under the Old Icelandic forms of their names; that is, as Hróarr, helgi and Hrólfr, the last one with the epithet Kraki. In the case of the skjöldunga saga saga of the Scyldings only a latin summary has survived, and so their names are latinized.
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This conflict also appears in Scandinavian sources, but in the norse tradition the heaðobards had apparently been forgotten and proposal the conflict is instead rendered as a assignment family feud (see gesta danorum, hrólf Kraki's saga and Skjöldunga saga, below, for more information). The norse sources also deal with the defeat of Ingeld and/or Froda. Scandinavian sources edit In the Scandinavian sources, consisting of Norse sagas, icelandic poems and Danish chronicles, Hrothgar also appears as a danish king of the Scylding dynasty. He remains the son of healfdene and the elder brother of Halga. 33 Moreover, he is still the uncle of Hroðulf. The Scandinavian sources also agree with beowulf by making Hrothgar contemporary with the Swedish king Eadgils. 34 These agreements with beowulf are remarkable considering that these sources were composed from oral tradition 700 to 800 years after the events described, and 300 to 400 years later than beowulf and Widsith.
There are also notable differences. The heaðobards Ingeld and Froda also appear in Scandinavian tradition, but their tribe, the heaðobards, had long been forgotten, and instead the tribal feud was rendered as a family feud. Their relationship as father and son had also been reversed in some sources, 35 and so either Ingeld or Froda is given as the brother of healfdene. Ingeld or Froda murdered healfdene, but was himself killed in revenge by Hrothgar and Halga. Moreover, in Scandinavian tradition, Hrothgar is a minor character in comparison to his nephew Hroðulf. Such differences indicate that beowulf and Scandinavian sources represent separate traditions.
Since the danes were in conflict with the heaðobards, whose king Froda had been killed in a war with the danes, Hrothgar sent Freawaru to marry Froda's son Ingeld, in an unsuccessful attempt to end the feud. 24 beowulf predicts to hygelac that Ingeld will turn against his father-in-law Hrothgar. 25 Earlier in the poem, the poet tells us that the hall heorot was eventually destroyed by fire, 26 see" (Gummere's translation 27 sele hlīfade hēah and horn-gēap: heaðo-wylma bād, lāðan līges; ne wæs hit lenge þā gēn þæt se ecg-hete āðum-swerian æfter wæl-nīðe. Nor far was that day when father and son-in-law stood in feud for warfare and hatred that woke again. It is tempting to interpret the new war with Ingeld as leading to the burning of the hall of heorot, but the poem separates the two events (by a ne wæs hit lenge þā meaning "nor far way was that day when in Gummere's translation).
According to widsith (see below Hrothgar and Hroðulf defeat Ingeld, and if Scandinavian tradition (see the more detailed discussion below) is to be trusted Hrothgar himself is killed by a relative, 28 or by the king of Sweden, 29 but he is avenged by his. Halga dies in a viking expedition; Hroðulf succeeds him and rises in fame, and according to Hroðulf's own saga 30 and other sources, 31 Hroðulf's cousin and/or brother-in-law heoroweard slays Hroðulf (is this the event referred to as the burning of heorot?). Heoroweard himself dies in that battle, and according to two sources, 32 this happens only a few hours later, as an act of vengeance by a man loyal to Hroðulf, called Wigg. This is the kin-slaying end of the Scylding dynasty. Widsith edit Whereas beowulf never dwells on the outcome of the battle with Ingeld, the possibly older poem Widsith refers to Hrothgar and Hroðulf defeating Ingeld at heorot : Hroþwulf ond Hroðgar heoldon lengest sibbe ætsomne suhtorfædran, siþan hy forwræcon wicinga cynn ond Ingeldes ord. Hroðulf and Hroðgar held the longest peace together, uncle and nephew, since they repulsed the viking-kin hewn at heorot heaðobard's army. And Ingeld to the spear-point made bow, This piece suggests that the conflict between the Scyldings Hrothgar and Hroðulf on one side, and the heaðobards Froda and Ingeld on the other, was well known in Anglo-saxon England.
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Yrsa herself was tragically also the result of Halga raping a woman. Wealhþeow has borne Hrothgar two sons, Hreðric and Hroðmund, and Hroðulf is to be regent if Hrothgar dies before his sons are grown. 18 (Since Hrothgar is an old man at this time—he tells beowulf he has been king for "fifty winters" 19 —and wealhþeow's two sons are not yet grown, it seems likely that wealhþeow is much younger than Hrothgar, and may not be his first wife.). After beowulf defeats Grendel's mother, Hrothgar rewards him again, and then preaches a sermon in which he warns beowulf to beware of arrogance and forgetfulness of God. 21 beowulf takes his leave of Hrothgar to return home, and Hrothgar embraces him and weeps that they will not meet again (because Hroðgar is a very old man). 22 This is Hrothgar 's all last appearance in the poem. When beowulf reports on his adventure to his lord Hygelac, he mentions that Hrothgar also had a daughter, Freawaru ; 23 it is not clear whether Freawaru was also the daughter of wealhþeow or was born of an earlier marriage.
9 When beowulf leads his men to denmark, he speaks of Hrothgar to both a coast-guard and to Hrothgar's herald: he calls Hrothgar a "famed king "famed warrior and "protector of the homeless Scyldings " (the ruling clan and describes him as "old and good." The. 10 When beowulf defeats Grendel, Hrothgar rewards beowulf and his men with great treasures, showing his gratitude and open-handedness. 11 The poet says that Hrothgar is so generous that "no man could fault him, who wished to speak the truth." Hrothgar was married to a woman named wealhþeow, who was a helming, 12 probably defining her as a relative of Helm, the ruler. 13 When Hrothgar welcomes beowulf, 14 he recalls his friendship with beowulf's family. He met beowulf's father Ecgþeow "when I first ruled the danes" after the death of heorogar; he laments heorogar's fall he was better than I! and recalls how he settled Ecgþeow's blood feud with the wulfings. Hrothgar thanks God for beowulf's arrival and victory over Grendel, and swears to love beowulf like a son. 15 The poem introduces Hroðulf 16 ( Hrólfr Kraki in Scandinavian sources) as Hrothgar's supporter and right-hand man; and we learn that Hroðulf is Hrothgar's nephew and that "each was true to the other". 17 The common piece of information that Hrothgar's younger brother Halga is Hroðulf's father comes from Scandinavian sources (see below where halga was unaware that Yrsa was his own daughter and either raped or seduced her.
Hrothgar, heorot, his nephew Hroðulf and their enemy Ingeld, but can complete beowulf in some cases where beowulf does not give enough information. This is notably the case concerning the ending of his feud with Ingeld. Beowulf edit In the epic poem beowulf, hrothgar is mentioned as the builder of the great hall heorot, and ruler of Denmark when the geatish hero beowulf arrives to defeat the monster Grendel. When Hrothgar is first introduced 5 in beowulf, it is explained that he was the second of four children of King healfdene : he had an older brother, heorogar, who was king before him; a younger brother Halga ; and a sister, who was married. The sister is not named in the manuscript and most scholars agree this is a scribal error, 6 but suggested names are signy and Yrsa. 7 The poem further tells that Hrothgar was "given victory in war" and so his kinsmen eagerly followed him. 8 he is both honest and generous: "He broke no oaths, dealt out rings, treasures at his table".
Eadgils ; and both traditions also mention a feud with men named. The consensus view is that Anglo-saxon and Scandinavian traditions describe the same person. 2, contents, hrothgar, also rendered, hrōðgār,. Old English form attested in, beowulf and, widsith, the earliest sources to mention the character. In non-English sources, the name appears in more or less corresponding Old Icelandic, old Danish, and Latinized versions. He appears as Hróarr, hroar, etc., in sagas and poetry, and as ro or roe in the danish Latin chronicles. The form Hrōðgār is thought to have derived from the proto-norse * Hrōþigaizaz 3 "famous spear. However, the corresponding Old Norse name Hróarr and its variations are not derived from * Hrōþigaizaz, but from the very close names * Hrōþiwarjaz "famous defender" or * Hrōþiharjaz "famous warrior". These two names, both appearing as Hróarr in Scandinavia, did not have any corresponding Old English form, and so Hrōðgār was their summary closest equivalent.
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Queen, wealhþeow serving Hrothgar (background, centre) and his men. Illustration from a 1908 children's book. Hrothgar old English : Hrōðgār r̥oðgɑr ; Old Norse : Hróarr ) was a legendary danish king living in the early 6th report century. 1, hrothgar appears in the, anglo-saxon epics. Beowulf and, widsith, in Norse sagas and poems, and in medieval Danish chronicles. In both Anglo-saxon and Scandinavian tradition, Hrothgar. Scylding, the son of, halfdan, the brother of, halga, and the uncle. Moreover, in both traditions, the mentioned characters were the contemporaries of the Swedish king.