9 Sunkist also invested in marketing fresh-squeezed orange juice and lemonade as superior alternatives to "artificial" beverages such as Coca-cola. By the mid-1930s, one sunkist orange in five was being consumed in juice form, often at soda fountains, and Sunkist juice was the second-most-popular soda fountain drink, after Coca-cola. 10 by 1914, Americans were consuming about forty oranges per person every year, up 11 In 1915, in response to competition from imported Italian lemons, which at that time had nearly half the American market, sunkist started aggressively marketing the benefits of Sunkist lemons, promoting. By 1924, california lemons had 90 of the American lemon market., sunkist markets fresh oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruits, tangerines and strawberries to 12 states and three canadian provinces, from 6,000 growers in California and Arizona. From 1971 to 2014, sunkist was based in the Sherman oaks district of Los Angeles ; in September 2014, it relocated to the valencia neighborhood of Santa Clarita, california. 1 Through licensing agreements, sunkist has rented its trademark to other firms such as General Mills and Snapple, for marketing more than 600 mainly citrus-flavoured products including soft drinks and juice drinks, vitamins, and jellies and candies, in more than 50 countries.
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By 1907, california was producing five times the quantity of oranges it had been fifteen years earlier, and orange production was continuing to world grow as newly planted orange groves began to bear fruit. In response, in 1907 the cfge approved the first-ever large-scale advertising campaign aimed at advertising a perishable commodity. The march 1907 campaign, which marketed oranges to iowans as "healthy" and "summery resulted in a 50 increase of orange sales in that state. It also launched the sunkist brand: the ad agency lord thomas originally proposed using the adjective "sun-kissed" to describe the cfge oranges; the word eventually used in the campaign was Sunkist, made up by the agency so it would be easier to defend afterwards. 7 In an effort to distinguish Sunkist oranges from others, the cfge wrapped its oranges in paper stamped with the sunkist brand. But in 1909, after Sunkist learned that merchants were selling non-Sunkist oranges as Sunkist, it began to offer consumers a free sunkist-branded spoon in exchange for mailing in twelve sunkist wrappers. One million spoons were claimed in the first year of the promotion, further establishing the brand in consumers' minds and giving merchants a reason to want to display sunkist oranges in their original wrappers. By 1910, the promotion had resulted in Sunkist becoming the world's largest purchaser of cutlery. 8 The success of early campaigns prompted Sunkist to invest heavily in advertising, and in coming decades the brand was advertised in magazines and on radio, on billboards, streetcars and railroad cars, on the sides of speedboats, in school curricula and essay contests, and. Its messaging aimed to reposition oranges in the minds of consumers. Rather than being seen as a luxury to be enjoyed only at Christmas, sunkist wanted people to see oranges as essential for good health, and to eat one every day.
Organizational structure edit sunkist has three levels of organizational hierarchy: local, district, and central associations. Individual growers belong to a local organization; local organizations belong to a district organization, and district organizations belong to a central organization. The main purpose of the cooperative is to create systems enabling fruit from multiple growers to be efficiently harvested, sorted into various sizes and grades, and packed and shipped across the United States, in response to shifting demand. 4 Since inception, the organization has significantly expanded its activities. In 1906, the cfge launched the citrus Protective league, a lobbying arm. 5 In 1907, it formed the Fruit Growers Supply company to supply growers with materials such as radios, tires, shooks for fruit crates, insecticides, and fertilizers at wholesale prices. It later formed the sunkist's Exchange by-products Company, which developed markets for products such as citric acid, sodium citrate, lemon oil, pectin, orange oil and orange pulp. 4 6 The sunkist brand edit Fruit crate label plan for Sunkist California oranges In its early years, the primary problem facing the california citrus industry was an oversupply of fruit.
2, contents, history edit. In the late 1880s, california citrus growers began organizing themselves into cooperatives, with the goal of increasing profits by pooling their risk and increasing their collective bargaining power with jobbers and packers. The economic depression that began in 1893 worsened farmers' situations, and intensified their desire to self-organize to their own benefit. 3, writing in 1893,. Dreher and his son, working the "father of the california citrus industry". Dreher (18771964 formed the, southern California fruit Exchange in, claremont, a small college town near. It originally represented only growers of oranges: in 1896 lemon growers joined as well. 3 The exchange soon included growers and groves in riverside in riverside county, pomona and San Dimas in Los Angeles county, and Santa paula, saticoy, fillmore, rancho sespe, bardsdale and Piru in Ventura county ; by 1905, the group represented 5,000 members, 45 of the. In 1952, it changed its name to sunkist Growers, Inc.
Hottes, Alfred Carl (2004 1001 Christmas Facts and Fancies 1937, kessinger Publishing, isbn doerkson, Cliff (2010 The real American pie, chicago reader). Sunkist Growers, Incorporated is an American citrus growers' non-stock membership cooperative composed of 6,000 members from, california and, arizona. It is currently headquartered in the. Valencia neighborhood of, santa Clarita, california. 1, through 31 offices in the, united States and. Canada and four offices outside, north America, its sales in 1991 totaled 956 million. It is the largest fresh produce shipper in the United States, the most diversified citrus processing and marketing operation in the world, and one of California's largest landowners.
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Retrieved 3 December 2015. Bibliography ayto, john (1990 The Glutton's Glossary: a dictionary of food and Drink terms, routledge, isbn baker, margaret (1992 discovering Christmas Customs and Folklore (third. Osprey publishing, isbn brand, john (1849 Observations on the popular antiquities of Great Britain, bohn Butler, samuel ; Johnson, samuel (1807 poetical Works: With the life of the author, 12, printed for Cadwell and davies, etc and Samuel Bagster Chambers, robert (1864 The book. Chambers ltd dyer,. (2007 British Popular Customs - present and Past - illustrating the social and Domestic Manners of the people, read books, was isbn john, j (2005 a christmas Compendium, continuum International Publishing Group, isbn lee,. (1854 The cook's Own book, and housekeeper's Register,. Markham, gervase ; Best, michael.
Best,., The English housewife, mcGill-queen's Press - mqup, isbn n/A (1744 The harleian Miscellany, gray's Inn, london: Printed for. Osborne selden, john (1856 The table-talk of John Selden, london:. Smith Stavely, keith. F.; Fitzgerald, kathleen (2004 America's founding food: the story of New England cooking, unc press books, isbn timbs, john (1866 something for everybody (and a garland for the year), london: Lockwood and. Further reading edit Brand, john; Ellis, henry (1841 Observations on popular antiquities: chiefly illustrating the origin of our vulgar customs, ceremonies, and supersititions, 1, charles Knight and.
184185 markham best 1994,. . 141 a b Chambers 1864,. . 755" taken from Lewis, Thomas (1720 English Presbyterian eloquence, printed for. Bickerton, and reproduced in Brand 1849,. . 527528 N/A 1744,. . 500 butler johnson 1807,. .
21 "Grubstreet journal, dec. On Christmas pye ", the gentleman's Magazine, hosted at,. . 652653, december 1733, retrieved 24 november 20,. . 3233 Stavely fitzgerald 2004,. . 220 hirst, Christopher (4 December 2011 "Sweet Delight: a brief History of the mince pie", the Independent, retrieved 7 December 20,. . 33 george, colin booming Mince pie and Coffee sales boost Greggs, retrieved 14 november 2012 Clare, sean "Illegal Mince pies and Other uk legal Legends", bbc, retrieved 14 november 2012 a b Peggy. "Thanksgiving and the new England pie" (PDF).
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20 New England edit mincemeat pie was brought to new England by English settlers in the 17th century. 21 While it was originally a christmas pie, as in Britain, the puritans did not celebrate Christmas, causing the pie's associations in the region to shift toward the American holiday of management Thanksgiving. The ingredients for New England mincemeat pie are similar to the British one, with a mixture of apples, raisins, spices, and minced beef serving as the filling. 21 Later recipes sometimes omit the beef, though "None such" (now owned by The. Smucker Company the major brand of condensed American mincemeat, still contains beef. New England mincemeat pies are usually full-sized pies, as opposed to the individual-sized pies now common in Britain. See also edit references warming edit footnotes The full"tion reads "We have never been witnesses of animosities excited by the use of mince-pies and plumb-porridge; nor seen with what abhorrence those who could eat them at all other times of the year would shrink from. An old Puritan, who was alive in my childhood, being, at one of the feasts of the church, invited by a neighbour to partake of his cheer, told him, that, if he would treat him at an alehouse with beer, brewed for all times and. 149 a b John 2005,. .
10 In his essay the life of Samuel Butler, samuel Johnson wrote of "an old Puritan, who was alive in my childhood. Would have none of his superstitious meats and drinks." nb 1 Another essay, published in the december 1733 issue of The gentleman's Magazine, explained the popularity of "Christmas pye" as perhaps "owing to the barrenness of the season, and the Scarcity of Fruit and Milk. 15 people began to prepare the fruit and spice filling months before it was required, storing it in jars, and as Great Britain entered the victorian age, the addition of meat had, for many, become an afterthought (although the use of suet remains). 16 Its taste then was broadly similar to that experienced today, although some 20th-century writers continued to advocate the inclusion of meat. 17 Although the modern recipe is summary no longer the same list of 13 ingredients once used (representative of Christ and his 12 Apostles according to author Margaret baker and lacks the religious meaning contained therein, 18 the mince pie remains a popular Christmas treat. Bakers Greggs reported sales.5 million mince pies during Christmas 2011. 19 The popular claim that the consumption of mince pies on Christmas day is illegal is in fact an urban myth.
Thistleton-dyer thought Selden's explanation unlikely, as "in old English cookery books the crust of a pie is generally called 'the coffin. 4 The modern mince pie's precursor was known by several names. The antiquary john Brand claimed that in Elizabethan and Jacobean -era England they were known as minched pies, 5 but other names include mutton pie, and starting in the following century, christmas pie. 6 Gervase markham 's 1615 recipe recommends taking "a leg of mutton and cutting "the best of the flesh from the bone before adding mutton suet, pepper, salt, cloves, mace, currants, raisins, prunes, dates and orange peel. He also suggested that beef or veal might be used in place of mutton. 7 In the north of England, goose was used in the pie's filling, 8 but more generally neat's tongue was also used; a north American filling recipe published in 1854 includes chopped neat's tongue, beef suet, blood raisins, currants, mace, cloves, nutmeg, brown sugar, apples. 9 10 During the English civil War, along with the censure of other Catholic customs, they were banned: "nay, the poor rosemary and bays, and Christmas pie, is made an abomination." 11 Puritans were opposed to the Christmas pie, on account of its connection with. 1 In his History of the rebellion, marchamont needham wrote "All Plums the Prophets Sons defy, and Spice-broths are too hot; Treason's in a december -pye, and death within the pot." 12 Some considered them unfit to occupy the plate of a clergyman, causing Philo-Clericus. Strange that a sirloin of beef, whether boiled or roasted, when entire is exposed to the utmost depredeations and invasions; but if minced into small pieces, and tossed up with plumbs and sugar, it changes its property, and forsooth is meat for his master.
Nevertheless, the tradition of eating Christmas pie in December continued through to the. Victorian vegetarianism era, although by then its recipe had become sweeter and its size markedly reduced from the large oblong shape once observed. Today the mince pie, usually made without meat (but often including suet or other animal fats remains a popular seasonal treat enjoyed by many across the United Kingdom and Ireland. Contents, history edit, britain edit, a batch of home-made mince pies, the ingredients for the modern mince pie can be traced to the return of European crusaders from the. Middle eastern methods of cooking, which sometimes combined meats, fruits and spices, were popular at the time. Pies were created from such mixtures of sweet and savoury foods;. Tudor, england, shrid pies (as they were known then) were formed from shredded meat, suet and dried fruit. The addition of spices such as cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg was, according to the English antiquary john Timbs, "in token of the offerings of the eastern Magi." 1 2 several authors, including Timbs, viewed the pie as being derived from an old Roman custom practised.
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A mince pie is a sweet pie of, british origin, filled with a mixture of dried fruits and spices called " mincemeat that is traditionally served during the. Christmas season in the, english-speaking world, excluding the usa. Its ingredients are traceable to the 13th century, when returning European crusaders brought with them Middle eastern recipes containing meats, fruits and spices. The early mince pie was known by several names, resume including " mutton pie "shrid pie" and "Christmas pie". Typically its ingredients were a mixture of minced meat, suet, a range of fruits, and spices such as cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg. Served around Christmas, the savoury Christmas pie (as it became known) was associated with supposed Catholic "idolatry" and during the. English civil War was frowned on by the, puritan authorities.