Mali makes a breakthrough in Mango Exports The Agricultural Competitiveness and diversification Project (acdp implemented by the ministry of Agriculture of Mali, is helping expand markets for mangoes and other cropsand building good business practices within the countrys agricultural sector. One of the key objectives of Malis poverty reduction strategy is to increase rural incomes and employment opportunities by promoting agricultural diversification and developing exports of high-value commodities. Mangoes are especially favored for this development because of the excellent agro-climatic conditions in the southern regions of bougouni and sikasso, and because of the fast-growing demand for this produce in European markets. But, despite the high quality of the countrys fresh fruit and vegetables, the high cost of air-freight has limited marketing and exportation. And because some malian products, including mangoes, passed through Côte divoirethrough the many pack-houses established at its northern border with Malibefore being exported to europe, there was little return to malian producers, and few incentives to invest in the horticultural sector. Linking farmers to markets therefore required the creation of strong supply-chains that could bring innovative practices upstream and downstream.
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Risks Political commitment to real decentralization may not be deep enough. The central government (and this is arguably more pronounced under the current apc leadership) has been ambivalent in resolving the tensions between the Chiefdoms and the lcs. The tensions are most evident over revenues. Non-resolution of this issue could threaten decentralization. There is some evidence that MPs feel increasingly threatened by lcs as resource allocation decisions are gradually transferred to the lcs. This is probably more of an issue with single day member constituencies (since 2007) than it had been with proportional representation. The lack of significant own source revenues at the local level. As the dec Sec and the lgfd are mainstreamed into government, their staff may lose the high level of commitment they have had. References Zhou, yongmei (ed). Decentralization, democracy and development: Recent Experience from sierra leone, the world Bank, washington. Decentralization: What have we learned?
Availability of services (primary schools, clinics, water) improved sharply with more schools and more clinics since 2005. . The one area where there has been a sharp decline in dessay services is agricultural extension where the percentage of households who have spoken to an agricultural extension worker in the last year has declined consistently and dramatically from 23 to 9 percent. Services have improved most where the distance to power has fallen (i.e., far from Freetown but near district capitals) Drivers of Success At least on the surface both the slpp government and the apc government have been committed to decentralization and there was some loss. The ircbp and the strong donor support for decentralization has helped to keep the momentum and to develop capacity in the lcs. The process has been supported by public servants at least in some of the line departments at the lc level who find that the relative autonomy from Freetown has helped to enhance their efficiency. The dec Sec and the lgfd have played a key role in driving the process. In the absence of these units and the commitment of their staff it is unlikely that implementation would have progressed at this pace. An active and dynamic civil society in sierra leone.
There is evidence that healthy democratic practices are getting established. Although turnout was low, second round of lc elections took place in 2008 which were by all accounts free and fair. This together with the peaceful handover of power at the national level in 2007 makes sl quite unique as a post-conflict country. Service delivery: There is evidence that the availability of basic services improved dramatically between 20 The improvement is not, however, consistent or across the board. . For example, health quality improved sharply and then slowed down. . Two major concerns: the dearth of supervision and the negative impact of fees on service take-up. . It is not possible to directly attribute the observed improvements thesis to decentralization but there are some positive signs. There are concerns that local councils have not used their geographic proximity to services to improve supervision of service providers.
Achievements All nineteen local councils have been established and are functioning. Although still somewhat short of what was laid out in the lga 2004, most functions have now been devolved and are being performed by the lcs. Core staff, including accountants and procurement specialists, have been provided to the lcs. Although line staff associated with devolved functions have not yet been devolved, their activities are now overseen and coordinated by the lcs. The basics for an equitable and transparent intergovernmental fiscal transfer system are in place with a combination of formula-based tied and untied grants to fund the devolved functions. There is scope for simplification and improvement. Although transfers to lcs have regularly fallen below budgeted amounts and predictability is an issue, these are now a regular feature of the budget, the execution ratio has improved from.5 (2005).6 (2008) and the volume has increased from about.4 million.
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Simonsen, marianne, and louise fox. A profile of poverty in Tanzania, world Bank, washington,. Tanzanias Growth Process and Success in Reducing poverty. Imf working Paper WP/05/35. Sustaining and sharing growth in Tanzania. Rebuilding Local governments in Post-conflict sierra essay leone.
Background, elected local governments were abolished in 1972; power was centralized in Freetown leading to marginalization and neglect of the rural periphery. Together with patrimonialism, rampant corruption and mismanagement this led to a brutal eleven year civil war from. At the end of the war sl ranked next to last in the hdi with huge regional inequality. The slpp government elected in 2002 decided to reestablish local government and following consultations, enacted the local government Act 2004; this was followed by local council elections in may 2004. Decentralization of political power and devolution of resources was a necessary though not sufficient first step in addressing patrimonialism, centralization and urban bias. At the same time, the world Bank, dfid and ec supported the gosl's efforts to establish a functioning local government system through the Institutional Reform and Capacity building Project. To compensate for the lack of capacity, the project using a unique and unusual approach supported the establishment of three new units/departments of government - a decentralization Secretariat (Dec Sec a local government Finance department (lgfd) and a public Financial Management Reform Unit (pfmru).
The second phase saw far-reaching structural reforms. The reforms, which were a response to the dismal economic performance of the country in 1970-85, transformed the country to market economy. The major reforms since 1996 include the following: sound fiscal and monetary policies to control inflation; fiscal consolidation and stronger public financial management; privatization and reform of state-owned enterprises; reduction in the level of state intervention in the economy—trade reform, liberalization of the financial sector. Macroeconomic stabilization and structural reforms were instrumental in attracting fdi, which was a key factor in fostering higher growth in the nonagricultural sectors. . Fiscal incentives to foreign investors—especially in the mining sector—such as generous depreciation allowances, indefinite loss carry forward, exemptions from import duties and the value-added tax, and some income tax holidays were instrumental as well in attracting fdi.
Donors supported the governments reform efforts through large inflows of official donor assistance. References: Chandra, vandana, pooja kacker, and Ying. Tanzania: Growth Exports, and Employment in the manufacturing Sector. World Bank, washington,. Mahamba, robert, and Jorgen levin. Economic Growth, sectoral Linkages, and poverty reduction in Tanzania. Tanzania: The Story of an African Transition.
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Although its contribution to gdp is still small, at around 3, the sector is one of reviews the most important foreign exchange earners. . Annual gold output increased from five to 50 tons between 19, making Tanzania the fourth largest African gold producer. Liberalization of trade and exchange regimes boosted non-traditional exports and reversed large external imbalances. Tanzania has been successful in attracting fdi. . A large share of fdi is directed to the mining sector, but manufacturing, tourism, and financial sectors have also attracted fdi. Establishment of a competitive banking system has facilitated increased availability of credit for productive activities. There has been remarkable progress in enrolment in primary and secondary schools. Key success factors/drivers of success : Tanzanias reform process began gradually in 1986 and intensified beginning in 1996. . The first phase saw a partial liberalization of the economy. .
Tanzanias transformation to a market economy. Over the past 15 years Tanzania dramatically improved its economic performance, as a process of comprehensive economic reforms transformed the country from a controlled economy to an open, market-based one. Achievements, beginning in the mid-1990s, the macro economy stabilized, inflation declined to single digits, and economic growth improved. . Growth accelerated in recent years, averaging about 7 a year in 2001-07. Growth has been broad-based. . Although agriculture remains Tanzanias main economic sector- employing 80 of the work force-other sectors have posted strong performances. . Following privatization, manufacturing sector writing output rose briskly driven by an increase in the output of a number of commodities, including sugar, beer, soft drinks, cement, and steel. Tourism has emerged as an important sector contributing to over 10 of the gdp. Mining is growing in impact and importance. .
accountability by getting government closer to its citizens. Donors strong support for the governments reconstruction and pro-growth efforts. Reference: Benito-Spinetto,., and. Moll, 2005, mozambique: Macroeconomic developments, Economic Growth, and Consequences for poverty. Background paper for the 2005 country Economic Memorandum, world Bank, washington,. Louise, 2008, beating the Odds: Sustaining Inclusion in mozambique's Growing Economy, world Bank publications. Ifad, 2005, Agriculture development in Republic of mozambique, agriculture support Programme formulation Report, working Paper 2, International Fund for Agricultural development, rome. Mozambique beating the Odds: Sustaining Inclusion in a growing Economy.
Despite this progress, more than half of the population still lives in poverty. . Also, the gap between rural and urban populations persists. Key success factors/drivers of success, several factors contributed to the countrys impressive economic and social performance. A key driver of economic expansion was the governments pro-growth economic policies: sound monetary and fiscal policies to promote overall macroeconomic stability; lowering of restrictions on competition, such as price controls and inefficient monopolies; high levels of public investment in post-war reconstruction and infrastructure rehabilitation. The response of family farmers and family-owned businesses to the governments pro-growth policies was critical to growth. . Rehabilitation of agricultural markets, marketing infrastructure, and rural services raised the productivity of labor and boosted crop income. . Farmers had access to good-quality land and they used this access to expand the area farmed and to diversify inventory crop production. Increased income from selling agricultural produce provided funds to invest in new small and micro business ventures. . Rural households also invested in better housing and in sending their children to school. .
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Achieving shared growth in post-stabilization mozambique. Mozambique has been a strong economic and social performer in Sub-Saharan Africa. Achievements, mozambiques growth episode is one of the longest for low-income countries in recent years. In the period following the end of the civil war in 1992 and free elections in 1994, mozambique has posted strong economic growth—averaging around 8 a year. Sustained, broad-based growth has helped to substantially reduce income poverty—the poverty headcount index fell by 15 percentage points between 19, moving nearly three million people out of extreme poverty (out of a total population of 20 million). In addition, income inequality has remained relatively low by regional standards. Rural poverty fell slightly faster than urban poverty, albeit starting from a higher level. Households improved their ownership of productive assets. Access to services has increased and human development outcomes have improved: net primary school enrollment has increased by 76 and infant and under-five mortality has fallen.thesis