Although social exchange can be genuine, when the goal for the individual to stay out of debt or to get something in return, it is selfishness. "The tendency to help others is frequently motivated by the expectation that doing so will bring social rewards" 11 Organizational Theory edit some of Blau's first major contributions to sociology were in the field of organizations. His first publication, dynamics of Bureaucracy (1955 prompted a wave of post-Weberian organizational studies. Organizational research consisted in exploring to what extent the received image of the weberian bureaucracy—an efficient, mechanical system of roles—held up under close scrutiny in the empirical study of social interaction within organizations. Blau, in his research and study, highlighted the ways in which the real life of the organization was structured along informal channels of interaction and socio-emotional exchange. He also discussed how the incipient status systems formed were important to the continued functioning of these organizations as the formal status structure. Hence, much of Blau's work involving organizations centered on the interplay between formal structure, informal practices, and bureaucratic pressures and how these processes affect organizational change. Blau's second major contribution to organizational analysis revolved around the study of determinates of the "bureaucratic components" of organizations.
8 Blau created a page number of theories explaining aspects of population structure that increased chances of intergroup relations. Blau viewed social structure as being somewhat stable, but he did identify two phenomena that he believed contributed to structural change within a population: social mobility and conflict. Blau thought social mobility, which he described as "any movement within a population by an individual was beneficial to intergroup relations within a population structure, and theorized various scenarios involving social relations and mobility. 8 Blau also theorized explanations for structural causes of conflict, focusing on population distribution as a cause of conflict separate from individual or political issues. 9 According to Blau, structural conflict is linked to the inequality of status of groups, size of group, social mobility between groups, and the probability of social contact between groups. Blau determined that prevention of conflict within a population structure can be achieved through "multigroup affiliations and intersection in complex societies." pdf 9 Social Exchange Theory edit social exchange provides an explanation of the interactions and relationships Blau observed while researching. He believed that social exchange could reflect behavior oriented to socially mediated goals. Peter started from the premise that social interaction has value to people, and he explored the forms and sources of this value in order to understand collective outcomes, such as the distribution of power in a society. 10 people engage in social interactions in which we would not think deep about but Blau suggested it is for the same reason why people engage in economic transactions. They need something from other people, the exchange. That then leads to an increase in social exchange in which people attempt to stay out of debt because it gives them an advantage as well as potential power.
He died on March 12, 2002 of acute respiratory distress syndrome. For Blau, sociological theories were produced through logical deduction. Blau began theoretical studies by making a broad statement or online basic assumption regarding the social world, which was then proven by the logical predictions it produced. 7 Blau claimed these statements could not be validated or refuted based on one empirical test. Instead, it was a theory's "logical implications" that could be trusted, more so than an empirical test. 7 Only if continued empirical tests contradicted the theory could the theory be modified, or dropped entirely if a new theory was proposed in its place. 7 Blau's trust in logic and his deductive approach to social theory aligns him closely with the philosophy of positivism and traditional French sociologists, auguste comte and Émile durkheim. Population Structures edit population structures and their relationship with social interaction was another primary interest within Blau's work. Blau believed that population structure created guidelines for specific human behaviors, especially intergroup relations.
One of Blau's most memorable and significant contributions to the field of sociology came in 1967. Working together with Otis Dudley duncan and Andrea tyree, he co-authored The American Occupational Structure, student which provided a meaningful sociological contribution to the study of social stratification, and won the highly touted Sorokin Award from the American Sociological Association in 1968. Blau is also known for his contributions to sociological theory. Exchange and Power in Social Life (1964) was an important contribution to contemporary exchange theory, one of Blau's distinguished theoretical orientations. The aim of this work was, to analyze) the processes that govern the associations among men as a prolegomenon of a theory of social structure." 4 In it, Blau makes the effort to take micro-level exchange theory and apply it to social structures. Blau was also very active in the study of structural theory. Blau's 1977 book, "Inequality and Heterogeneity presents, "A macro sociological theory of social structure" 5 where umum the foundation of his theory "is a quantitative conception of social structure in terms of the distributions of people among social positions that affect their social relations." 5 For. 6 he also served as the president of the American Sociological Association from.
He spent several weeks as a pow of France crushing grapes in Bordeaux. When the policy about Jews was reversed, he was able to continue his journey to le havre, france where he received a refugee scholarship to Elmhurst College in Illinois through a group of missionaries studying at the theological seminary. Blau emigrated to America on the degrasse ship and landed in New York on January 1, 1939. He attended Elmhurst College, earning his degree in sociology in 1942, and becoming a united States citizen in 1943. Blau returned to europe 1942 as a member of the United States Army, acting as an interrogator given his skills in the german language. He was awarded the bronze star for his duties. It was during this time that Blau also received word that his family had been killed at Auschwitz. Later life edit After receiving his bachelor's degree from Elmhurst College, blau continued his education at Columbia university, where he received his.
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Blau was given a ten-year sentence in the federal prison in vienna. 2 he was then released shortly after his imprisonment when the ban on political activity was lifted due to the national Socialists' rise to power. When Hitler arrived in Austria on March 13, 1938, Blau attempted to escape to czechoslovakia. Both Blau and his sister—who was sent to England—managed to escape. The rest of his family, however, decided to stay in Austria. Blau's original attempt to flee proved unsuccessful as he was captured by nazi border patrol and was imprisoned for two months.
During the two months he was detained, he was tortured, starved, and was forced to eat only lard. 3 Yet, he was once again released and made his way to Prague. When Hitler occupied czechoslovakia, he escaped again, returning illegally to vienna to visit one more time with resume his parents. In the dark of night, Blau hid on a train to cross the border into France. There he turned himself into the Allied forces, who had not yet reversed their policy of putting anyone with a german passport - even the jews - into labor camps.
He was one of the first sociological theorists to use high level statistics to develop sociology as a scientific discipline using macro-level empirical data to gird theory. He also produced theories on how population structures can influence human behavior. One of Blau's most important contributions to social theory is his work regarding exchange theory, which explains how small-scale social exchange directly relates to social structures at a societal level. He also was the first to map out the wide variety of social forces, dubbed ". Blau space " by, miller McPherson.
This idea was one of the first to take individuals and distribute them along a multidimensional space. Blau-space is still used as a guide by sociologists and has been expanded to include areas of sociology never specifically covered by Blau himself. In 1974 Blau served as president of the. Contents, early life and family background edit, peter Blau was born in 1918. Vienna the year the, austro-hungarian Empire fell. He was born into a jewish family as fascist power within Europe grew and Hitler's influence within Austria became increasingly evident. His influence prohibted free speech, religion, and activities not sanctioned by the government. 1 At the age of seventeen, Blau was convicted of high treason for speaking out against government repression in articles he wrote for an underground newspaper of the social Democratic Worker's Party and was subsequently incarcerated.
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The next year, he was offered a professorship at the. University of nurse Chicago, where he taught from 1953 to 1970. He also taught as Pitt Professor at Cambridge University in Great Britain, as a senior fellow at King's College, and as a distinguished Honorary professor at tianjin Academy of Social Sciences which he helped to establish. In 1970 he returned to columbia university, where he was awarded the lifetime position of Professor Emeritus. From 1988 to 2000 he taught as the robert Broughton Distinguished Research Professor at University of North Carolina, chapel Hill in the same department as his wife, judith Blau, while continuing to commute to new York to meet with graduate students and colleagues. His sociological specialty was in organizational and social structures. He formulated theories relating to many aspects of social phenomena, including upward mobility, occupational opportunity, and heterogeneity. From each of his theories, he deduced an hypothesis which he would test against large scale empirical research.
Ix, the highest point reached by contemplative materialism, that is, materialism which does not comprehend sensuousness as practical activity, is contemplation of single individuals and of civil society. X, the standpoint of the old materialism is civil society; the standpoint of the new is human society, or social humanity. Xi, the philosophers have only enzymes interpreted the world, in various ways; the point is to change. Deutsch 1938 translation of Marxs original 2002 translation of Marxs original mecw translation of Engels 1888 version. Peter Michael Blau (February 7, 1918 march 12, 2002) was. American sociologist and theorist. Born in, vienna, austria, he immigrated to the, united States in 1939. PhD doctoral thesis with, robert. Merton at, columbia university in 1952, laying an early theory for the dynamics of bureaucracy.
individual. In its reality it is the ensemble of the social relations. Feuerbach, who does not enter upon a criticism of this real essence, is consequently compelled: to abstract from the historical process and to fix the religious sentiment as something by itself and to presuppose an abstract isolated human individual. Essence, therefore, can be comprehended only as genus, as an internal, dumb generality which naturally unites the many individuals. Vii, feuerbach, consequently, does not see that the religious sentiment is itself a social product, and that the abstract individual whom he analyses belongs to a particular form of society. Viii, all social life is essentially practical. All mysteries which lead theory to mysticism find their rational solution in human practice and in the comprehension of this practice.
Iii, the materialist doctrine concerning the changing of circumstances and upbringing forgets that circumstances are changed by men and that it is essential to educate the educator himself. This doctrine must, therefore, divide society into two parts, one of which is superior to society. The coincidence of the changing of circumstances and of human activity or self-changing can be conceived and rationally understood only as revolutionary practice. Feuerbach starts out from the fact of religious self-alienation, of the duplication of the world global into a religious world and a secular one. His work consists in resolving the religious world into its secular basis. But that the secular basis detaches itself from itself and establishes itself as an independent realm in the clouds can only be explained by the cleavages and self-contradictions within this secular basis. The latter must, therefore, in itself be both understood in its contradiction and revolutionized in practice. Thus, for instance, after the earthly family is discovered to be the secret of the holy family, the former must then itself be destroyed in theory and in practice.
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I, the chief defect of all hitherto existing materialism that of feuerbach included is that the thing, reality, sensuousness, thesis is conceived only in the form of the object or of contemplation, but not as sensuous human activity, practice, not subjectively. Hence, in contradistinction to materialism, the active side was developed abstractly by idealism which, of course, does not know real, sensuous activity as such. Feuerbach wants sensuous objects, really distinct from the thought objects, but he does not conceive human activity itself as objective activity. Hence, in, the Essence of Christianity, he regards the theoretical attitude as the only genuinely human attitude, while practice is conceived and fixed only in its dirty-judaical manifestation. Hence he does not grasp the significance of revolutionary, of practical-critical, activity. Ii, the question whether objective truth can be attributed to human thinking is not a question of theory but is a practical question. Man must prove the truth —. The reality and power, the this-sidedness of his thinking in practice. The dispute over the reality or non-reality of thinking that is isolated from practice is a purely scholastic question.