33 The leopard is part of the panthera lineage, one of the eight lineages of Felidae. This lineage comprises the species of Panthera and neofelis. The clouded leopard diverged first from the lineage, followed by a clade consisting of the tiger and the snow leopard. Subsequent branching began two to three million years ago, but the details of this are disputed. 34 Results of phylogenetic studies based on ndna and mtdna analysis showed that the leopard is a sister taxon to a clade within Panthera consisting of the lion and the jaguar. 18 19 However, results of a different phylogenetic study revealed a swapping between the leopard and the jaguar in the cladogram. 20 21 Results of a 2001 phylogenetic analysis of chemical secretions amongst cats also suggested that the leopard is closely related to the lion. 35 Fossils of ancestors of the leopard have been found in East Africa and south Asia, dating back to the Pleistocene between 2 and.5 million years ago.
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Delacouri ) Pocock, 1930 It inhabits mainland southeast Asia, including myanmar, thailand, homework malaysia, cambodia, laos, vietnam and south China. 2 Sri lankan leopard (. Kotiya ) Deraniyagala, 1956 It is native to Sri lanka. 2 evolution and genetics edit The last common ancestor of the panthera and neofelis species is believed to have occurred about.37 million years ago. The clouded leopard was the first to diverge from the rest of the panthera lineage, followed by resume the snow leopard. The genus Panthera is believed to have emerged in Asia, from where they subsequently emigrated to Africa. The tiger-snow leopard clade diverged from the rest of Panthera around.9 million years ago. 20 21 Johnson and colleagues suggest that the leopard diverged next, and followed by the lion-jaguar clade. 18 The diploid number of chromosomes in the leopard is 38, the same as in any other felid, save for the ocelot and the margay, whose diploid number of chromosomes. 32 The chromosomes include four acrocentric, five metacentric, seven submetacentric and two telocentric pairs.
28 Amur leopard paper (. Orientalis ) ( Schlegel, 1857) syn. North-Chinese leopard (. Japonensis ) ( Gray, 1862) It is native to central and northern China, 31 and the russian Far East. It is considered to be extinct in the korean peninsula. 2 Populations are rather small. 31 Indochinese leopard (.
Persian leopard (. Ciscaucasica ) ( Satunin, 1914. Saxicolor Pocock, 1927,. Sindica pocock, 1930,. Dathei zukowsky, 1964 leopard populations persist in eastern Turkey, the caucasus, georgia, armenia, southern Russia, azerbaijan, turkmenistan, uzbekistan, afghanistan, iraq and northern Iran. 2 In southwestern Turkey, the leopard is extinct. The balochistan leopard possibly evolved in southern Iran, southern Afghanistan and southwestern pakistan, being separated from the northern population by red the dasht-e kavir and Dasht-e lut deserts.
2 Arabian leopard (. Nimr ) ( Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1833 syn. Jarvisi pocock, 1932 It is the smallest leopard subspecies; adult females weigh about 18 kg (40 lb). It is native to the Arabian Peninsula : saudi Arabia, oman, yemen, kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, israel, jordan, lebanon and Syria. It is considered extinct in the sinai peninsula. 30 Anatolian leopard (. Tulliana ) ( Valenciennes, 1856 syn.
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Iturensis ( Allen, 1924. Adusta pocock, 1927,. Shortridgei pocock, 1932,. Adersi pocock, 1932 1 It is the most widespread leopard subspecies and occurs in: 2 North Africa with only a relict population remaining in Morocco and southeastern Egypt 29 West Africa including Benin, burkina faso, ghana, guinea, guinea-bissau, ivory coast, liberia, mali, mauritania, niger, nigeria. Fusca ) (meyer, 1794 syn. Pernigra (Hodgson, 1863.
Millardi pocock, 1930 It is native to the Indian subcontinent : pakistan, india, nepal, bhutan, and Bangladesh. 2 3 javan leopard (. Melas ) (. Cuvier, 1809) It is the only subspecies native to Indonesia and lives on java. It is Critically Endangered.
27 The nine subspecies recognised by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (iucn) are summarised in the following table. 2 27, the cat Classification Task force of the cat Specialist Group recognizes only eight subspecies and subsumed. 3 leopard subspecies Subspecies Description Image African leopard (. Pardus ) (Linnaeus, 1758 syn. Panthera ( Schreber, 1777. Leopardus (Schreber, 1777.
Melanotica (Gunther, 1885. Suahelicus ( neumann, 1900. Nanopardus ( Thomas, 1904. Ruwenzorii (Camerano, 1906. Chui ( Heller, 1913. Reichenowi (Cabrera, 1918. Antinorii (de beaux, 1923.
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22 The leopard was first described by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in the 10th edition of Systema naturae. Linnaeus named the leopard Felis pardus and placed it in the genus Felis along with the domestic cat, the jaguar, the eurasian lynx, the lion, the ocelot and the tiger. 23 In the 18th and 19th centuries, most naturalists and taxonomists followed his example. In 1816, lorenz oken proposed a definition of the genus Panthera, with a subgenus Panthera using. Pardus as a type species. Oken's classification was not widely accepted, and Felis or leopardus was used until the early 20th century. 24 In 1916, British zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock accorded Panthera generic rank based on Panthera pardus as the type species. 25 Subspecies edit map of approximate distribution of leopard subspecies Following Linnaeus's first description, travel 27 leopard subspecies were described by naturalists between 17Since 1996, only eight subspecies have been considered valid on the basis letter of mitochondrial analysis. 26 Later analysis revealed a ninth valid subspecies, the Arabian leopard.
13 17 The specific name pardus is derived from the Greek πάρδος ( pardos ) male panther. 14 Taxonomy edit Two cladograms proposed for Panthera. The upper cladogram is based on the 20tudies, 18 19 while the other is based on the 20tudies. 20 21 The leopard is one of the five extant species of the genus Panthera, which also includes the jaguar (. Onca the lion (. Leo the snow leopard (. Uncia ) and the tiger (. This genus, along nowadays with the genus neofelis forms the subfamily pantherinae.
include graupanther, panther and several regional names such as tendwa in India. 14 The term "black panther" refers to leopards with melanistic genes. 15 A term for the leopard used in Old English and later, but now very uncommon, is "pard". 16 The scientific name of the leopard is Panthera pardus. The generic name panthera derives from Latin via greek πάνθηρ ( pánthēr ). 17 The term "panther whose first recorded use dates back to the 13th century ad, generally refers to the leopard, and less often to the cougar and the jaguar. 15 Alternative origins suggested for Panthera include an Indo-Iranian word meaning "white-yellow" or "pale". In Sanskrit, this could have been derived from pāṇḍara tiger which in turn comes from puṇḍárīka (with the same meaning).
6 7 Compared to other wild cats, the leopard has relatively short legs and a long body with a large essay skull. It is similar in appearance to the jaguar, but generally has a smaller, lighter physique. Its fur is marked with rosettes similar to those of the jaguar, but the leopard's rosettes are generally smaller, more densely packed and without central spots. Both leopards and jaguars that are melanistic are known as black panthers. The leopard is distinguished by its well-camouflaged fur, opportunistic hunting behaviour, broad diet, and strength (which it uses to move heavy carcasses into trees as well as its ability to adapt to various habitats ranging from rainforest to steppe, including arid and montane areas, and. 8 Fossil parts dating to the late Pleistocene were excavated in Europe and Japan. 9 10 Contents Etymology edit The common name "leopard" /lɛ. Pərd/ 11 is a greek compound of λέων leōn lion and πάρδος pardos male panther. The name reflects the fact that in antiquity, a leopard was believed to be a hybrid of a lion and a panther.
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For other uses, see, leopard (disambiguation), leopards (disambiguation), and, leopardi (disambiguation). Panthera pardus ) /lɛpərd/ is one of the five species in the genus, panthera, a member of the, felidae. The leopard occurs in a wide range in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of, asia and is listed as, vulnerable pelleas on the. Iucn red List because leopard populations are threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, and are declining in large parts of the global range. Hong Kong, singapore, kuwait, syria, libya, tunisia and most likely in, morocco, leopard populations have already been extirpated. 2, contemporary records suggest that the leopard occurs in only 25 of its historical global range. 4 5 leopards are hunted illegally, and their body parts are smuggled in the wildlife trade for medicinal practices and decoration.